How to practice mindfulness exercises

LIVING Sep 21, 2018 Mayo Clinic News Network

Mindfulness is a type of meditation where you focus on being intensely aware of what you are sensing and feeling in the moment. - Dreamstime

Mindfulness is a type of meditation in which you focus on being intensely aware of what you're sensing and feeling in the moment, without interpretation or judgment. Practicing mindfulness involves breathing methods, guided imagery, and other practices to relax the body and mind and help reduce stress.

Spending too much time planning, problem-solving, daydreaming, or thinking negative or random thoughts can be draining. It can also make you more likely to experience stress, anxiety and symptoms of depression. Practicing mindfulness exercises can help you direct your attention away from this kind of thinking and engage with the world around you.

What are the benefits of meditation?

Meditation has been studied in many clinical trials. The overall evidence supports the effectiveness of meditation for various conditions, including:

  • Stress
  • Anxiety
  • Pain
  • Depression
  • Insomnia
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)

Preliminary research indicates that meditation can also help people with asthma and fibromyalgia.

Meditation can help you experience thoughts and emotions with greater balance and acceptance. Meditation also has been shown to:

  • Improve attention
  • Decrease job burnout
  • Improve sleep
  • Improve diabetes control

What are some examples of mindfulness exercises?

There are many simple ways to practice mindfulness. Some examples include:

  • Pay attention.

It's hard to slow down and notice things in a busy world. Try to take the time to experience your environment with all of your senses — touch, sound, sight, smell and taste. For example, when you eat a favourite food, take the time to smell, taste and truly enjoy it.

  • Live in the moment.

Try to intentionally bring an open, accepting and discerning attention to everything you do. Find joy in simple pleasures.

  • Accept yourself.

Treat yourself the way you would treat a good friend.

  • Focus on your breathing.

When you have negative thoughts, try to sit down, take a deep breath and close your eyes. Focus on your breath as it moves in and out of your body. Sitting and breathing for even just a minute can help.You can also try more structured mindfulness exercises, such as:

  • Body scan meditation.

Lie on your back with your legs extended and arms at your sides, palms facing up. Focus your attention slowly and deliberately on each part of your body, in order, from toe to head or head to toe. Be aware of any sensations, emotions or thoughts associated with each part of your body.

  • Sitting meditation.

Sit comfortably with your back straight, feet flat on the floor and hands in your lap. Breathing through your nose, focus on your breath moving in and out of your body. If physical sensations or thoughts interrupt your meditation, note the experience and then return your focus to your breath.

  • Walking meditation.

Find a quiet place 10 to 20 feet in length, and begin to walk slowly. Focus on the experience of walking, being aware of the sensations of standing and the subtle movements that keep your balance. When you reach the end of your path, turn and continue walking, maintaining awareness of your sensations.

When and how often should I practice mindfulness exercises?

It depends on what kind of mindfulness exercise you plan to do.

Simple mindfulness exercises can be practised anywhere and any time. Research indicates that engaging your senses outdoors is especially beneficial.

For more structured mindfulness exercises, such as body scan meditation or sitting meditation, you'll need to set aside time when you can be in a quiet place without distractions or interruptions. You might choose to practice this type of exercise early in the morning before you begin your daily routine.

Aim to practice mindfulness every day for about six months. Over time, you might find that mindfulness becomes effortless. Think of it as a commitment to reconnecting with and nurturing yourself

 

Why not use your commute as your quiet time?

Train meditation and skipping the coffee are two pro tips for a healthier morning commute

The Hamilton Spectator 11 Aug 2018 MORGAN SMITH

Guided meditation on apps like Calm, or finding a piece of instrumental classical, jazz, world or new age music and taking deep breaths can help turn your commute into a meditative experience.

As August arrives, the summer commute into work becomes a sweaty endeavour marked by crowded bodies, the stench of city garbage and exacerbated FOMO (“fear of missing out”) from missing another perfect beach day.

But imagine a weekday morning when, instead of rushing into the office with a sweating iced coffee and pit stains to match, you were calm. Confident. Even looking forward to your workday.

Wellness experts think such a thing is possible, part of a movement that prizes self-awareness and making small, conscious steps toward a healthier, fulfilling life — like adjusting your morning commute routine.

Judy Manisco, a registered nutritionist and dietitian in Chicago, believes that slight meal adjustments could drastically improve commuters’ well-being before work. “The key is to wake up early enough where you’re not running around, stressed about getting to work on time, but pacing yourself and eating a healthy breakfast before work,” she says.

Manisco suggests a balance of protein and carbohydrates to keep you full and energized until lunch. Her favourite breakfast? “A protein shake made from organic soy milk, raw, unsalted walnuts (they’re high in nutrient-dense omega-3 fatty acids), a variety of seeds, oat bran and either a stalk of celery or a handful of spinach,” Manisco says. For sweetness, she recommends adding natural cocoa or a date.

If you skip the protein shake, Manisco recommends wholegrain toast, a handful of nuts or seeds, and a cup of fruit. She warns against coffee. “Caffeine will get your heart and adrenals pumping artificially, and thus could have you feeling unnecessarily anxious or depressed,” Manisco says.

Diet isn’t the only trick to incorporating wellness into your morning commute. Paying attention to posture and movement can also help.

Jason Kart, a practicing physical therapist for 10 years and the owner of Core Physical Therapy in Chicago, says lower back and neck pain are the most “common ailments” among his working patients. “When you sit for a while, you turn your postural muscles off and you start using passive structures like cartilage, which breaks down easier,” Kart says. “Humans are built to walk around and look for food, so when you’re sitting, you’re not activating those important spinal muscles, but instead causing a steady breakdown of muscle tissue.”

Kart takes Metra to work each morning and notices the same behaviour causing neck pain among commuters: “text neck.” “Text neck” occurs when you lean your head over your phone, straining your neck muscles and thus causing joint pain. To alleviate this, Kart recommends a simple fix: “If you’re standing on the ’L’ or Metra, the movement of the train helps you practice stability and balance and work your postural muscles,” he says.

And for car drivers who can’t stand during their commute? Consider the headrest. “Bad posture is so common among drivers ... they should practice keeping their head lightly against the headrest and avoid a slouch position,” he says. “This will gradually alleviate back and neck pain while driving.” At work, Kart suggests periodically moving around to engage the postural muscles most commonly associated with neck and back pain.

After considering your stomach and your spine, think of your brain. One of the most popular sectors of wellness is mindfulness. Darrell Jones, general manager of Chill Chicago: Meditation and Massage and a meditation instructor, meditates on the train during his commute and recommends the practice to anyone who wants to feel “calmer and happier” entering their workspace.

Annoyed by the loud chatter or the loudspeaker on the train? “Incorporate those sounds and how they make you feel into your meditation,” Jones says. He recommends the guided meditation on apps like Calm, or finding a piece of instrumental classical, jazz, world or new age music and taking deep breaths while asking yourself questions such as: “Who do I want to be, regardless of what does or doesn’t happen today? Do I want to be a jerk, or a kind soul? Do I want to embody possibility, or show up exuding impossibility?

“An easy meditation game you can play is taking a deep breath, with your eyes closed, each time the train door opens, and exhaling when it closes,” Jones says.

The most important thing, according to Jones, is cultivating a calm, positive mindset before launching into a routine. “If we can prioritize our wellness in small ways, or create a mindset of possibility before reading a horrible piece of news or a frustrating work email ... that could improve your whole day,” he says.

 

Discovering Self-compassion Through Mindfulness

Hamiltonians Barbara Smith and Mary Linda Burgess teach an eight-week course focusing on how we can treat ourselves with kindness

LIVING 02:48 PM by Emma Reilly  The Hamilton Spectator

MINDFULNESS

Clinical social worker Mary Linda Burgess (R) and psychotherapist Barbara Smith are the instructors of a mindfulness and self-compassion course, a research-based practice that encourages self-kindness, a sense of common humanity, and balanced, mindful awareness. - Gary Yokoyama , The Hamilton Spectator

Barbara Smith and Mary Linda Burgess want you to take care of yourself.

Smith, a psychotherapist, and Burgess, a social worker, aren't talking about treating yourself to an afternoon latte or getting a pedicure (though they both agree that there's nothing wrong with a little self-pampering).

For Smith and Burgess, this type of self-care goes much deeper.

"This isn't 'Go out and do something.' This is, 'Come in.' Be with yourself. Ask yourself what you need," said Burgess.

“We in the Western world have this really severe inner critic that beats us up all the time, which is not true in the rest of the world. This is what this course is really designed to address: this inner critic.”

Barbara Smith

Psychotherapist

“We eventually run out, if we don’t take good care. Self-compassion offers layers of self-care that aren’t taught in other programs.”

Mary Linda Burgess

Social worker

Smith and Burgess are the founders of Mindful Self-Compassion Hamilton, an eight-week program that uses mindfulness — the practice of focusing one's awareness on the present moment — as a tool for practising self-compassion.

"We in the Western world have this really severe inner critic that beats us up all the time, which is not true in the rest of the world," said Smith. "This is what this course is really designed to address: this inner critic."

Their course, which runs for eight, three-hour sessions, is a blend of meditation, short talks, experiential exercises, group discussion, and "homework" — exercises for participants to practice at home.

The class focuses on developing the three key components of self-compassion: self-kindness, a sense of common humanity, and mindfulness. Our internal critic, say Smith and Burgess, leads us to self-judgment, isolation, and either overidentification or avoidance of negative emotions.

"What happens when we're angry, or sad? We try to push it away. So whatever we resist, persists," said Smith. "So the idea here is not to push it away, but to stay with it, to allow it, to be with it. And paradoxically, it tends to soften, and it's OK, once we're facing it."

"We're not the Energizer Bunny. We don't go off screen and get a new battery put in, and come right back," said Burgess. "We eventually run out, if we don't take good care. Self-compassion offers layers of self-care that aren't taught in other programs."

The benefits are many, say Smith and Burgess. They point out that there are over 1,400 articles on self-compassion in the psychological literature, and that research shows that self-compassion is strongly associated with fewer negative states like depression, anxiety, stress, shame, and negative body image. At the same time, it's strongly linked to more positive states like happiness, life satisfaction and optimism.

Smith and Burgess — who met when they were both working on the Hamilton Family Health Team — run roughly three courses every year, each of which is different depending on the makeup of the class. The people who attend are from all walks of life: different age ranges, different professions, and different backgrounds. The course isn't meant to be a substitute for therapy, though it can help to support those who are in counselling.

The course follows a curriculum written by Kristin Neff, an associate professor in the University of Texas at Austin's department of educational psychology, and Chris Germer, a clinical psychologist and lecturer at Harvard Medical School. Both Smith and Burgess have gone through training in order to be certified to teach the course.

Those who have taken the course say self-compassion has helped them to feel more grounded, calmer, and more able to cope with difficult situations.

"It meets a need for folks that traditional programs — for example, self-esteem programs — doesn't address. Self-compassion is what the world is lacking. It meets that need on a deeper level," said Burgess.

ereilly@thespec.com

905-526-2452 | @EmmaatTheSpec

ereilly@thespec.com

905-526-2452 | @EmmaatTheSpec

Mindfulness and meditation need to be part of Canada’s mental-health strategy

REVA SETH

Reva Seth is a bestselling author and the founder of The Optima Living Lab, an initiative making the case for public investment in the personal infrastructure of individuals.

Pro athletes, celebrities, Fortune 100 CEOs and Silicon Valley billionaires have rhapsodized on how meditation and mindfulness are the most effective tools for health, personal performance and well-being since, well, exercise. Like yoga and running before it, mindfulness tools and meditation programs are now big business – with popular apps like Headspace, the Mindfulness App and Buddhify receiving tens of millions of downloads.

Mindfulness and meditation are simply about regularly exercising the ability to be, deliberately and calmly, fully in the moment. This requires an individual to still his or her mind, control emotions and breathe regularly and deeply. It's a simple habit that produces incredible (data-based) results – which is why leading global companies such as Google, Target and General Mills are incorporating it into their organizations.

Research shows regular practice reduces both physical and mental-health costs and improves emotional quotient (essential for social cohesion and success in a knowledge economy) and resilience to stress, as well as employee focus, concentration and productivity.

Researchers from John Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md., found that meditation and mindfulness reduce anxiety, depression and pain.

Similarly, a study in the Journal of Health Psychology found that meditation and mindfulness lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol.

Scientists at the University of Oregon found that meditation techniques actually result in physical brain changes that protect against mental illness by increasing the signalling connection in the brain and the density of protective tissue.

From a public-health perspective, Canada should be experimenting and implementing what research suggests is a cost-effective, non-invasive means of helping to address our national mental-health crisis.

Mental illness and addiction affects one in five Canadians in their lifetime. Canada is also the second highest per capita consumer of opioids in the world – and, according to the International Narcotics Control Board, these numbers are rising.

Data show that Canada's youth are also suffering from rising levels of anxiety, stress, depression and suicide. A large-scale 2016 study tracking Ontario students for the past 20 years found that one-third had moderate to severe symptoms of psychological distress – an increase from two years earlier.

The economic costs of these numbers are significant. Mental illness broadly costs the Canadian economy more than $50-billion (from health care, social services and income support) and Canadian businesses lose $6-billion annually as a result of lost productivity, absenteeism and turnover.

Even more staggering is the ripple effect that our national mental-health crisis is having on our families, workplaces and communities. Statistics Canada in 2012 found that approximately 11 million Canadians had a family member with a mental-health or addiction problem. More than one-third reported that their own lives had been directly and adversely affected by their family members' mental issues.

The traditional frame of reactive acute care is no longer sufficient or optimal.

It's time for public-health officials, policy makers and the public to get behind a commitment to scaling up access to meditation and mindfulness programs. These practices shouldn't remain the stronghold of the affluent who have the time and resources to invest in cultivating stronger mental wellness. Information and opportunities to practice meditation should be available to all Canadians – with schools, hospitals, workplaces and even public transport or the CBC as possible points of delivery.

Successful models that could be scaled up are already operating across the country, and the first step should be to survey these existing success stories for templates that could be nimbly offered more widely. For instance, in the Toronto District School Board, the Dr. Norman Bethune Collegiate Institute introduced lessons in mindfulness with six workshops over two months. Similarly, the Vancouver School Board offers teachers mindfulness training through the MindUp program.

This is not a replacement for better medical care, improved social services or pharmaceutical intervention – it's a supplement or augmentation to existing treatments and a pro-active means of strengthening the ability of more individuals to personally invest effectively in their mental and emotional wellness.

A national strategy and commitment to promoting mindfulness and meditation would also positively nudge forward our collective ability to better navigate other social and health priorities. For instance, meditation has been shown to alleviate loneliness among seniors, reduce stress among caregivers and help promote focus and reduce anxiety among youth.

Much like ParticipAction was launched by the Canadian government to promote healthy living and physical fitness (and to battle exorbitant health-care costs), the next frontier is to do the same with our country's mental well-being by publicly scaling up education, understanding and access to meditation and mindfulness.

Mindfulness and meditation need to be part of Canada’s mental-health strategy

REVA SETH

Reva Seth is a bestselling author and the founder of The Optima Living Lab, an initiative making the case for public investment in the personal infrastructure of individuals.

Pro athletes, celebrities, Fortune 100 CEOs and Silicon Valley billionaires have rhapsodized on how meditation and mindfulness are the most effective tools for health, personal performance and well-being since, well, exercise. Like yoga and running before it, mindfulness tools and meditation programs are now big business – with popular apps like Headspace, the Mindfulness App and Buddhify receiving tens of millions of downloads.

Mindfulness and meditation are simply about regularly exercising the ability to be, deliberately and calmly, fully in the moment. This requires an individual to still his or her mind, control emotions and breathe regularly and deeply. It's a simple habit that produces incredible (data-based) results – which is why leading global companies such as Google, Target and General Mills are incorporating it into their organizations.

Research shows regular practice reduces both physical and mental-health costs and improves emotional quotient (essential for social cohesion and success in a knowledge economy) and resilience to stress, as well as employee focus, concentration and productivity.

Researchers from John Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md., found that meditation and mindfulness reduce anxiety, depression and pain.

Similarly, a study in the Journal of Health Psychology found that meditation and mindfulness lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol.

Scientists at the University of Oregon found that meditation techniques actually result in physical brain changes that protect against mental illness by increasing the signalling connection in the brain and the density of protective tissue.

From a public-health perspective, Canada should be experimenting and implementing what research suggests is a cost-effective, non-invasive means of helping to address our national mental-health crisis.

Mental illness and addiction affects one in five Canadians in their lifetime. Canada is also the second highest per capita consumer of opioids in the world – and, according to the International Narcotics Control Board, these numbers are rising.

Data show that Canada's youth are also suffering from rising levels of anxiety, stress, depression and suicide. A large-scale 2016 study tracking Ontario students for the past 20 years found that one-third had moderate to severe symptoms of psychological distress – an increase from two years earlier.

The economic costs of these numbers are significant. Mental illness broadly costs the Canadian economy more than $50-billion (from health care, social services and income support) and Canadian businesses lose $6-billion annually as a result of lost productivity, absenteeism and turnover.

Even more staggering is the ripple effect that our national mental-health crisis is having on our families, workplaces and communities. Statistics Canada in 2012 found that approximately 11 million Canadians had a family member with a mental-health or addiction problem. More than one-third reported that their own lives had been directly and adversely affected by their family members' mental issues.

The traditional frame of reactive acute care is no longer sufficient or optimal.

It's time for public-health officials, policy makers and the public to get behind a commitment to scaling up access to meditation and mindfulness programs. These practices shouldn't remain the stronghold of the affluent who have the time and resources to invest in cultivating stronger mental wellness. Information and opportunities to practice meditation should be available to all Canadians – with schools, hospitals, workplaces and even public transport or the CBC as possible points of delivery.

Successful models that could be scaled up are already operating across the country, and the first step should be to survey these existing success stories for templates that could be nimbly offered more widely. For instance, in the Toronto District School Board, the Dr. Norman Bethune Collegiate Institute introduced lessons in mindfulness with six workshops over two months. Similarly, the Vancouver School Board offers teachers mindfulness training through the MindUp program.

This is not a replacement for better medical care, improved social services or pharmaceutical intervention – it's a supplement or augmentation to existing treatments and a pro-active means of strengthening the ability of more individuals to personally invest effectively in their mental and emotional wellness.

A national strategy and commitment to promoting mindfulness and meditation would also positively nudge forward our collective ability to better navigate other social and health priorities. For instance, meditation has been shown to alleviate loneliness among seniors, reduce stress among caregivers and help promote focus and reduce anxiety among youth.

Much like ParticipAction was launched by the Canadian government to promote healthy living and physical fitness (and to battle exorbitant health-care costs), the next frontier is to do the same with our country's mental well-being by publicly scaling up education, understanding and access to meditation and mindfulness.

 

CONTRIBUTED TO THE GLOBE AND MAIL

PUBLISHED JUNE 29, 2017

Popular course at Yale in Finding Authentic Happiness through positive psychology and neuroscience based mindfulness practices: a CBC episode of the Current

1/4 of student (1200/3600 undergraduate students have taken a  new course at Yale University

This is a episode of the CBC's the current from Feb 20 2018

Click on the URL below to listen on your computer or smart phone

http://www.cbc.ca/radio/popup/audio/listen.html?autoPlay=true&mediaIds=1165603907532

Start listening at 22:31